Miss World – From 1951 to 2008

History

1951 Under the leadership of Eric Morley, the United Kingdom was home to the Miss World Pageant, one of the most important beauty contests on the planet.

1952 The Second Annual Miss World Competition was held in London. Sweden ‘s perfomance at MissWorld started out very well! This Scandinavian country won the award two yearsin succession.

1953 Manel Illangakoon,MissCeylon — Asia’s best hope in the UK — was third runner-up to Miss World Contest. In the early 1950s, Ceylon was one of three Asian nations to have compete in the beauty pageants on the planet. This Island became Sri Lanka on 22 May 1972 and has since competed under that name.

1954 Egypt’s Antigone Constanda became the first non-European representative to be crowned Miss World. America’s delegate Karin Hultman was first runner-up to Miss World, ahead of Efi Mela ( Grece ), Claudine Bleuse ( France ), Franke Waither ( Germany ) and Grete Hoffenbland ( Denmark ).

1955 Margaret Haywood, a “huge favorite”, became the second American woman to be named finalist in the British capital.

1956 The United States placed second for the third time in a row.

1957 Japan’s entrant qualified for the finalstwo years in succession.

1958 Five out of six finalists at Miss World were from Europe: Claudina Auger ( France ), Vinne Ingemann ( Denmark ), Gun Harriette Margareta Wagstrom ( Sweden ), Lucien Struve ( Holland ), and Eileen Sheridan ( UK ).

1959 Miss Rhodesia, Vivien Lendin, and Miss South Africa, Moya Meaker were semi-finalists. Rhodesia — Zimbabwe since 1980 — was not semi-finalist again until 1965.

1960 South Korea’s contestant Young-hee Lee made the top 15 for the first time. Korea’s qualification for the semi-finals was one of a number of surprises.

1961 Miss Spain Carmen Cervera was the first Spaniard to make the semi-finals. She also became the only Hispanic beauty queen to place among the finalists in 1961.

1962 Miss Japan, Teruko Ikeda, was fourth runner-up to Miss World Contest. Ikeda was one of the first Japanese delegates to be elected finalist.

1963 Liberia, a nation of ex-slaves, made the top 15 for the first time.

1964 The United Kingdom, the host country, was the winner for the second time. Apart from that, Helen Joseph became Montserrat’s first and only semi-finalist. Montserrat is a tiny Island on the Caribbean Sea.

1965 Eight out of fifteen semi-finalists at Miss World were from Europe :Lesley Langley ( UK /winner ), Gladys Waller ( Ireland ), Ingrid Kopetzky ( Austria ), Yvonn Ekman ( Denmark ), Faija Marja Salminen ( Finland ), Christine Sibellin ( France ), Karin Schutz ( Germany ), and Britt Marie Lindblad ( Sweden ).

1966 Miss Yugoslavia, Nikica Marinovic, was allowed to compete at Miss World, where she almost pulled off a major shock. Nikica was first runner-up! What could have happened if Yugoslavia — a Communist nation — had won this contest? During Cold War, Yugoslavia was one of only four Communist nations to compete in London, along with Czechoslovakia ( 1967, 1969, 1989 ), Bulgaria (1988), and Poland (1983-89 ).

1967 Peru’s Miss World Madeleine Hartog-Bell, once a fashion model in Paris, went on a peace mission to South Vietnam, alongside other names like Bob Hope ( actor ), Barbara McNair ( performer ) and Raquel Welch Tejada ( actress ).

1968 For the first time, Miss USA did not advance past the first round.

1969 Marcela Britanarova was allowed to leave Czechoslovakia, a Communist nation, for a trip to London, where competed for the Miss World title. In Britain, shequalified for the second round.

1970 Breaking with the tradition of the previous two decades, a black representative, exactly Jennifer Hosten ( Grenada’s contestant ), won the global trophy. The victory set off a frenzy of celebrations on Grenada, one of the world’s ten smallest nations.

1971 Guyana, Britain’s last colony on the South American mainland, made the top 15 for six years in succession.

1972 Mexico’s representative Gloria Gutierrez became the only Latin American beauty queen to place among the semi-finalists.

1973 Two out of five finalists at Miss World were from Asia: Miss Philippines, Evangeline Pascual ( 1st runner-up ) and Miss Israel ( 3rd runner-up ). Apart from that, Sylvia Ohannesian was the first Lebanese woman to be a semi-finalist at Miss World.

1974 America’s entrant Terry Ann Browning finished fifth.

1975 Yugoslavia, the only “Communist competitor” in London, qualified for the second round and then placed seventh.

1976 Jamaica’s entrant Cindy Breakspeare won the British award. For political reasons, many countries boycotted the 1976 Miss World. The explanation given by these countries, among them Yugoslavia and India, was that they objected to South Africa’s participation in England.

1977 Once again, politics played a major role in this international contest. Surprisingly, Jamaica did not defend its Miss World title. Why? It boycotted this event to protest the inclusion of South Africa.The country’s Head of Government Michael Manley, an admirer of Cuba’s dictator Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz, refused to allow Jamaica to compete in Britain.The Island was joined by India, Indonesia, Liberia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Philippines, Singapore, Swaziland, and Yugoslavia.

1978 Was Argentina the heavy-favorite for the Miss World title? No, it wasn’t. But, Silvana Suarez, Argentina’s representative, won the crown. Apart from that, South Africa was banned from competition because of its government’s racist policies. However, Jamaica returned to London after participating in the African-led boycott of the Miss World Pageant.

1979 Seven out of fifteen semi-finalists at Miss World were from Latin America / Caribbean:Gina Swaisson ( Bermuda ), Debbie Campbell ( Jamaica ), Lea Silva Dall Acqua ( Brazil ), Roselina Rosas ( Mexico ), Lorlei de la Ossa ( Panama ), Marlene Coggins ( Trinidad & Tobago ) and Laura Rodriguez ( Uruguay ).

1980 Was Israel the big favorite for the Miss World trophy? Yes, it was. But, Miss Israel, Anat Zimmerman, did not win the award. Apart from that, Bermuda, which won the global pageant in the previous year, made the top 15 in the British capital.

1981 Venezuela’s Miss World, Pilin Leon, the tallest delegate at MW ’81 , visited Caracas, where she ,a former volleyball player, was given heroine’s welcome.

1982 Miss Trinidad & Tobago, Aretha Ingrind Rocke, was labeled as the”Cleopatra of the Caribbean” by the press for public comments about her exotic face. She — the country’s most beautiful women since Janelle Penny Commissiong — was a “huge favorite” to win the international award in 1982.

1983 Welcome to England.Miss Malaysia Michelle Yeoh –today one of Asia’s most famous actresses — did not even make the semi-finals, but she saw this global contest as a great learning experience.

1984 Perhaps the most notable “Miss World anecdote” for Bolivia wasprovided by Erika Wyesse, a spectacular blonde. Bolivia’s beauty queen Erika Wyesse was criticized by animal rights activists, when a photo of her wearing an “ocelot coat” was published in London. Unfortunately, the ocelot is an endangered animal on Earth, including Bolivia.

1985 The United States won the Miss Americas title for the first time other than Venezuela, Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Miss USA World, Brenda Denton, defeated Jamaica’s Alison Jane Barnett, the heavy press favorite in the British capital. In addition to her continental prize, Denton was second runner-up in Miss World.
1986 Five out of seventy-seven entries at Miss World were from Oceania: Australia, Guam, New Zealand, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

1987 For the first time in several years, Miss United Kingdom, host country, failed to make into the semi-finals. However, Hong Kong became the only British colony in the second round of the Miss World Competition. In addition to making the top 12, Miss Hong Kong, Pauline Yeung, now a famous actress in Asian film industry, became “Miss Asia”.

1988 California’s Diana MagaƱa, 1st runner-up to Miss USA 1988, made the top ten.

1989 Moscow,USSR. Iceland’s Linda Petursdottir was the first Miss World to visit USSR /Soviet Union ( present-day Russia ).

1990 The Miss World title went toGina Marie Tolleson ( America ). Tolleson, who placed as first runner-up in Miss USA 1990, became the second U.S. delegate to win that title since the British event first began in the 1950s.

1991 France made the top ten for the first time since 1980, when Patricia Barzyk was second runner-up.

1992 For the first time in its history,Russia, a Marxist country 14 months ago, captured the Briton award. Meanwhile, Miss America, Sharon Belden, was called among the semi-finalists.

1993 The Miss World Pageant went toJamaica — which is slightly larger than the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Since it became a sovereign country, a former British dependency, in 1962, the Caribbean Island has won three Miss World titles.

1994 The new star of India, Aishwarya Rai, was crowned Miss World and years later she became a famous actress. Aishwarya Rai has appeared on screen with some of the biggest names in Hollywood and Bollywood, including Nandita Das, Martin Henderson, and Ben Kingsley.Some pageant experts believe that she is “one of the most beautiful girls of the world”.

1995 With gubernamental help, among them Nelson Mandela, and the enthusiastic support of the South African people, Sun City hosted the pageant. For the first time in several years, the States was eliminated in the preliminaries.

1996 Bangalore, India. Nine countries and one dependency qualified for the award: Greece ( winner ), Colombia ( 1st runner-up ), Brazil ( 2nd runner-up ), Venezuela ( finalist ), India ( finalist ), Dominican Republic, Aruba, Mexico, South Africa, and Belgium. Surprisingly, the States did not advance past the first round.

1997 Miss World was held in Seychelles ( Africa ). It was indeed an opportunity for the entries to visit one of the world’s most stunning and beautiful beaches. The elimination of Latin America, from Argentina to Venezuela and the American Virgin Islands, from the second round shocked many pageant experts.

1998 Miss Israel, Linor Abargil, captured the international award — she won the country’s only Miss World title that decade and century. In addition to this title, Israel has had several semi-finalists and finalists: 1956 ( 2nd runner-up ), 1957 ( semi-finalist ), 1959 ( 2nd runner-up ), 1960 ( 1st runner-up ), 1962, 1967 ( 3rd runner-up ), 1968 ( 2nd runner-up / favorite ), 1969, 1970 ( 2nd runner-up ), 1972 ( 2nd runner-up ), 1973 ( 3rd runner-up ), 1974 ( fourth runner-up ), 1976, 1980 ( 2nd runner up / favorite ), 1983, 1984, 1985, 1992, and 1995 ( 3rd runner-up ).

1999The 49th Annual Miss World Contest was held in London ( finals ) and the Maldives Islands ( swimsuit photo shoot ). Miss India was the winner; it has had two titleholders from 1965 to 1994.

2000 There were several surprises: Kazajstan’s representative Margarita Kravtsova and Uruguay’s entrant Katja Tomsen had qualified for the second round. Tomsen, who speaks English, Spanish and Italian, was also crowned Miss Americas.

2001 The Indian dynasty in Miss World, with three global awards from 1997 to 2000, ended this year after it failed to qualify for the second round.The People’s Republic of China was represented for the first time at a Miss World Contest; China’s delegate finished fifth.Astonishingly, Carrie Ann Stroup did not even make the semis in South Africa. According to Ladbrokes, Stroup, Miss America, was a “huge favorite” to win the international crown, ahead of Christianne Balmelli ( Chile ), Sara Corner ( India ), and Andreina Prieto ( Venezuela ). The USA had won the award twice, in 1973 and 1990.

2002 Turkey’s beauty queen was elected Miss World. She brought home her country’s first ever Miss World. For the first time, there were 20 semi-finalists: Nigeria, Holland, Colombia ( 1st runner-up ), Puerto Rico, China, Yugoslavia, Russia, Peru ( 2nd runner-up ), Norway, Vietnam, India, Curacao, Aruba, Australia, Philippines, Bosnia Herzegovina, Italy, Venezuela and the United States.

2003 Miss World, Rosanna Davison was hand-picked by a top-class international jury, including Candace Bushnell ( author ), Jackie Chan ( actor ), Pradeep Guha ( journalist ), and Gustavo Gianetti ( model ). Davidson was a big favorite after the preliminaries. Prior to Ireland ‘s victory, it did not advance past the second round since 1990.

2004 Miss USA, Nancy Randall, made the top Three. In China, Randall became the second black American to be named semi-finalist in Miss World. She hails from Brazil.

2005 Iceland – the most sparsely populated country on the continent of Europe – won its third global title. Curiously it has more MW awards than any country aside from India ( 5 ), Venezuela ( 5 ) and the United Kingdom ( 4 ). “Miss World went to Unnur Birna Vilhjalmsdottir ” was the headline in newspapers in Iceland, an Island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle.

2006 Was Miss Venezuela, Federica Guzman Diamante, the heavy favorite for the Miss World trophy? Yes, she was. But, unfortunately, Venezuela did not win the international pageant. Guzman Diamante — a television hostess – failed to make into the finals. Despite its historical success in countless contests, Venezuela has not won a MW award since 1995.

2007 In fairness to thePeople’s Republic of China, the birthplace of the beauty contests on Earth, Zhang Zi-lin , a native of Beijing, became Miss World 2007. Miss China was also the second beauty queen from a Communist nation — after Poland in 1989 — to win the European prize. Zhang, an ex hurdler, was the number one favorite for the crown, alongside other names like Ada Aimee de la Cruz, Miss Dominican Republic, and Jugita Jurkute, Miss Lithuania.For the fourth time, the event was held in a Marxist country. China — with one of the most fervent beauty contests followers in Asia — became the 33rd country to win the global award.

2008 Johannesburg ( South Africa ). The new star of Russia, Kseniya Vladimirovna Sukhinova, was chosen Miss World. Miss Russia beat 109 other entries in the pageant. She, the heavy press favorite, became the first Russian woman to win Miss World since Yulia Kurochkina in 1992.

What’s Missing in Your Indirect Channel?

Entering or expanding your presence in the Asia Pacific region invariably requires working with an indirect model engaging channel partners in one form or another, for all or part of your business. There have been many and varied ways of recruiting, enabling and managing your channel partners, just as many agreement types to work with, all well documented, all well researched. We have, over our years of experience, witnessed those that have worked, unfortunately many more that have not. After thirty odd years of business, many organizations in the IT sector continue to struggle with the complexities of an indirect route to market, nowhere more so than in Asia Pacific.

Of course there will be academic nomenclatures for some of the more common scenarios exhibited, however we have provided a slightly more descriptive categorization of those we come across commonly, all have something missing in the relationship.

“Dump and Run’ Model

Mr Vendor recruits Mr Channel Partner, seemingly with all the right criteria followed for selecting the perfect partner. The agreement is negotiated, the contract is signed, hand shakes and bows exchanged. Mr Vendor hands over a box of collateral, some CD’s and manuals, a help desk number, a web address and gets on the next plane returning home, heading straight for the fax machine to collect the flood of orders. Obviously a slight exaggeration, yet not an uncommon approach to partner recruitment.

Clearly partnerships require commitment from both parties. On one side the commitment to enable and transfer skills and knowledge, on the other a commitment to provide capable resources and focus, and a mutual commitment to agree a business plan, with continued review and measurement.

“Show Me Yours First – Stand Off” Model

These agreements take a form where Mr Vendor won’t provide anything or make any significant commitments until Mr Channel Partner first shows some commitment to the ’cause’, maybe hiring dedicated staff, allocating marketing budget or opening the ‘kimono’ up to the customer list.

Mr Channel Partner on the other hand hesitates to provide or commit precious funds and resources until Mr Vendor shows an active desire to support through supplying qualified leads, committing to free training or allocating resources to work with Mr Channels Partner resources. After a time with each waiting for the other to make the first move and not living up to expectations, little if any business is written and the partnership fades with both parties moving on to other pastures.

‘Indirect Is Cheaper’ Model

Many unfortunately still look to the indirect channel model as a free or cheap entry into a market with an expectation of huge success. The indirect model in any of its forms requires discounts, infrastructure and support, by implication there is a cost to this. It should NEVER be considered free.

What should be expected from any indirect channel model is a broader reach into previously unavailable markets with access to domain expertise and or regional experience at a better return for each dollar of outlay. Straight forward, right? Not for all unfortunately.

One all too common example is relatively successful and established organizations making the decision to change to the ‘cheap’ indirect model, significantly downsizing or closing local operations, not implementing a channel enablement and support infrastructure, nor managing the customer expectations. The expectation being revenue and maintenance renewals will continue and grow and the partners would carry on business as usual. The results, not surprisingly, are usually massive drops in revenue, defection of customers, partner dissatisfaction, low staff morale and competitor successes.

‘The Silver Bullet’ Model

Many organizations enter a market such as Asia Pacific looking for the ‘silver bullet’ channel partner, the one that has the contacts, the relationships, technical and sales skills, support infrastructure to sell and support their products – the obvious choice for the desired market segment. Of course this is the perfect scenario. What is often missed is that these channel partners (likely larger organizations) will have a sales force paid on gross profit, already committed to selling known products from multiple vendors with targets like any other sales force.

Ask yourself the question: Will a salesperson focus on a new, unknown, difficult to sell product with a slightly higher margin or will they go and achieve their quota with what they know and what is currently selling, even though the margin may be slightly lower?

‘Committed Start-Up’ Model

Relative to the above, seemingly a reasonable approach. Mr Start Up Partner will be keen to prove themselves, hungry for revenue, eager to impress, often with a specific domain expertise and driven to build their business. Everything that one could want in a sales force. Sometimes. What about resource availability and quality? What about scalability? Smaller organizations will be juggling issues like cash-flow, breadth of relationships, depth of contacts? Again, there are numerous examples of these well intentioned ‘partnerships gone wrong’.

‘You Need Us More Than We Need You’ Model

Typically either Mr Vendor or Mr Channel Partner are a recognized brand in their specific market, sometimes even both. The one more recognized in the market to which the other wants access plays hard ball, or more often, an individual charged with the relationship, suddenly wants to show their value and plays hard ball. A relationship built on animosity from the outset, destined for the ‘seemed like a good idea at the time’ pile. These relationships do have much to offer when executed correctly but can be difficult to manage or negotiate if either party believes they are in the dominant position with little to gain.

If all of these scenarios sound unfamiliar … then credit to your channel people, they should be rewarded handsomely as your channel is most likely working well for you, with mutual benefit.

But if any sound a little too familiar then … the big question! “What IS missing in my indirect channel?”

It’s not difficult to search out the plethora of material on the ‘6 things’ or maybe even ’12 things’ you must do to make a channel partnerships work. Or, on how to select your channel partners with what criteria etc. All these will have valid guidelines, all will have important aspects you should take note of and incorporate in your channel approach. Most will highlight aspects of company alignment, market segmentation, sales processes, clear rules of engagement and documentation of mutual expectations combined with constant, open communications, some identify a need to support your channel partner through resources and infrastructure, even funding of direct sales support during the enablement stage. All of which is correct and important.

Personally I like to boil things down to their simplest level, a common denominator or two. In this instance there is a fundamental state of mind that determines whether the partnership will succeed or fail, the one thing in the scenarios above that is missing.

A level of desire and ability to INVEST.

Each of the scenarios fail due to a lack of investment and we are not talking only of financial investment. We are talking about investment in all its forms – time, resources, focus, commitment and financial.

The ‘dump and run’ model lacks investment in support and commitment; ‘show me yours first’ lacks investment in the relationship and building trust; ‘indirect is cheaper’ lacks investment in many areas and so on. I’m sure you get the point.

Think of it this way, you would not expect your bank to pay you a dividend or interest income if you have zero dollars invested in your account. So it is amusing and somewhat worrying when speaking with seasoned and generally successful executives who seek to expand into Asia Pacific, actively avoiding investment in their channel development, yet they maintain high expectations of results. This is no more important than in Asia Pacific, a region accepted as requiring a strong indirect channel strategy to succeed, built on commitment, relationships and mutual trust.

The summary

The key to a successful channel partner strategy and in turn a business that will grow and gain strength year on year is simply, a commitment to invest appropriately based on the returns required and expected. Namely in the areas of:

o Understanding the market through research and segmentation.

o Partner selection and due diligence.

o Partner enablement (resource allocation & execution support).

o Support infrastructure and partner management.

o Communication, relationship and trust building.

o Regular and focused reviews.

Like all good things, successful, mutually beneficial relationships require commitment, focus and effort – there are no short cuts, there is no money for nothing. Your outcomes, returns and profit is directly proportional to your desire and ability to invest in your channels.

Sunrise – 1 Year on From the ASIA Launch

Nearly a year has passed since Early Bird Sunrise registration began for the coveted new.asia domain extension, the Early Bird Sunrise period (SR2a) was the first opportunity for commercial entities to register a.asia extension. Prior to this, registration was limited to Asian governments wishing to submit their public bodies and culturally or economically important domains during the pre-Sunrise period.

Throughout the commercial Sunrise period, entry was limited to those companies with registered trademarks trading in on of the 72 Asian countries as defined by ICANN, the period was split into four sub-periods which ran consecutively with the entry requirements becoming less stringent over time, and finally closed for new registration on January 31 2008. On March 26 2008 the.asia Go Live registration period started allowing anyone around the world to buy a.asia domain, and prompted a wave of speculators to begin buying up cyber real-estate from web hosts in the hope that a few companies with sloppy marketing departments had missed the Sunrise window.

So why is the.asia extension so important, when the region has functioned perfectly well over the years with.com and the other Asian regional extensions?

Put simply.asia provides a unifying sense of economic identity for the region which has over 500 million internet users (compared with 315 million in Europe and 253 million in the USA) a number which is growing steadily all the time as the cost of technology decreases..asia also allows companies to demonstrate an online presence and expand in to a region with one of the fastest moving economies in the world. That said how many companies have taken advantage of their newly acquired domains and actually set up a live site, well fewer that you would expect, a search of the obvious key players (Pepsi, Ford etc) returned “error page not found messages” Toyota the third largest Asian company according to Business Week’s ‘Top 25 Asian Companies’ have not set up a.asia page, Sony the seventh largest Asian company’s site is “under construction” and 7eleven the mini-market of choice for the region has their domain ‘parked’ in fact of the well known international brands only Honda seems to have a fully functioning.asia domain. So why this reticence to embrace.asia? Do we expect to see a wealth of new.asia sites before the end of the year? Or, are the big players just happy with the fact that they have secured their plot and are now content to sit on the fence while the price of the cyber real estate rises around them?

On thing does seem certain – this area is bound to take off eventually, and although the transition is slow it is gradually happening, with millions of quality domain names still on offer it could be time to speculate and buy your company’s piece of.asia before somebody else does.